The Musée Bourdelle extremely rich and varied collections. Along with a collection of sculptures (plaster casts, bronzes, marbles, stone, clay and stoneware), the Museum also houses Bourdelle's drawings, kept in the graphic arts room, and photographs, which played an important part in Bourdelle's life and work. Bourdelle's painted work, which is less well known, sheds light mainly on the artist's early career. The artist's personal collection (antiques, plaster moulds, paintings, drawings, engravings, etc.) exhibited on a rotative basis as part of the permanent collections, reflects the tastes of a man who was very much of his time.

Although it is a monographic institution dedicated to Bourdelle, the Musée Bourdelle keeps other related collections, such as the bequest of Rhodia and Michel Dufet. As the artist's daughter and son-in-law respectively, they worked together to preserve the premises, save their heritage, and to share it, while Michel Dufet pursued a parallel personal career as an architect and decorator.